Libel vs. Slander (Grammar Rules)

Learn when defamation is likely libel or slander with Grammar Rules from the Writer's Digest editors, including a few examples of correct usages.
Author:
Publish date:

(Editorial note: Some of the terms used in today's Grammar Rules post are used in legal situations. I am not a lawyer, and this should not be considered legal advice.)

When it comes to libel and slander, we're really talking about different types of defamation. As such, a good first step in this post is defining defamation, which is the act of defaming, disparaging, or damaging the reputation of another person. 

(Grammar rules for writers.)

For it to be considered defamation, the person who attempts to damage the reputation of the other person must state the damaging information as fact (as opposed to their opinion), the act caused injury to the other person, and the damaging information itself must be false. 

There are two main categories of defamation: libel and slander. So let's look at the differences between libel and slander.

Libel vs. Slander | Defamation (Grammar Rules)

Libel vs. Slander

For the most part, libel is considered defamation in a tangible form, such as writing, pictures (photos and drawings), and/or images. Most people think of it as "printed" material, whether in print or digitally, though Merriam Webster's includes "oral statements" in its definition of the term. With the advance of recordable and sharable media, this surely complicates the term, though defamation is defamation.

(Fair Use Rights 101 for Writers.)

Slander, on the other hand, is strictly considered the act of orally telling one or more people defamatory statements about another person or entity. If a person were to tell a group of friends at a party that Mr. C's local restaurant cooks and serves expired food (and the statement were false), it could be considered slander, because it may negatively impact business at Mr. C's restaurant.

As mentioned earlier, the line dividing libel and slander may be blurring a bit with some online media (like YouTube and Instagram). If someone records a video in which they slander a person or business, is it still considered slander (because of its oral nature), libel (because it's published), or both? I'll leave that one to the lawyers out there, but it makes for some tricky definitions.

Make sense?

Here are a few examples:

Correct: Matilda's false tweets that Harold was fired from his last job for homicidal recklessness is libel, because now many of his regular customers won't go to his auto repair shop.
Incorrect: Matilda's false tweets that Harold was fired from his last job for homicidal recklessness is slander, because now many of his regular customers won't go to his auto repair shop.

Correct: At the party, Michael had a little too much to drink and began slandering half his co-workers.
Possibly incorrect: At the party, Michael had a little too much to drink and began libeling half his co-workers.

While technological advances may be blurring the line between libel and slander, a good rule of thumb for keeping these terms straight is to think of libel as a tangible form of defamation and slander as intangible. Or use this trick: Take the "s" in "slander" to think of someone "speaking" their defamation; and take the "l" in "libel" to think of someone being able to "lend" (or share) their form of defamation, because it's available in some tangible form (even if it's digital).

*****

Grammar and Mechanics

No matter what type of writing you do, mastering the fundamentals of grammar and mechanics is an important first step to having a successful writing career.

Click to continue.

Writer's Digest July/August 2021 Cover

Writer's Digest July/August 2021 Cover Reveal

The July/August 2021 issue of Writer's Digest features a collection of articles about writing for change plus an interview with Jasmine Guillory about her newest romance, While We Were Dating.

Lacie Waldon: On Writing What You Know ... But Keeping it Interesting

Lacie Waldon: On Writing What You Know ... But Keeping it Interesting

Debut novelist Lacie Waldon discusses how her agent encouraged her to write what she knew, but then her editor made her realize that what she thought was boring might not be the case.

Pedal vs. Peddle (Grammar Rules)

Pedal vs. Peddle (Grammar Rules)

Learn when to use pedal and peddle with Grammar Rules from the Writer's Digest editors, including a few examples of correct usages.

Marissa Levien: On Pinning Down Your Novel's Middle

Marissa Levien: On Pinning Down Your Novel's Middle

Debut author Marissa Levien discusses how she always knew what the beginning and the end of her science fiction novel The World Gives Way would be, but that the middle remained elusive.

Drawing the Line for Withholding Secrets in Young Adult and Middle-Grade Novels

Drawing the Line for Withholding Secrets in Young Adult and Middle Grade Novels

Middle-grade and young adult author Ren Koppel Torres shares the top tips for how you can keep secrets from your characters and readers.

Payal Doshi: On Letting Rejection Bring You Clarity

Payal Doshi: On Letting Rejection Bring You Clarity

Middle-grade author Payal Doshi discusses the sometimes-disheartening process of querying a novel and how she used rejection to fuel her passion for writing.

writer's digest wd presents

WD Presents: Writer’s Digest Conference Announcements and More!

This week, we’re excited to announce that our 2021 Annual Conference will be virtual, registration is open for our 2021 in-person Novel Conference, and more!

Rajani LaRocca: On Letting Your Synopsis Guide Your Writing

Rajani LaRocca: On Letting Your Synopsis Guide Your Writing

In this article, middle-grade author Rajani LaRocca discusses how the synopsis for her newest release, Much Ado About Baseball, guided her writing process.