3 Lessons I Learned about Realism from Mentor Texts

Publish date:

I never took a creative writing class; I don’t have an MFA. But, as an English professor, I read for a living, and I have learned almost everything I know about writing from mentor texts (texts that teach us how to write). When I was young, I read all the time. I read everything. From cereal boxes to encyclopedias to LITTLE WOMEN. I am aware everyday of what a difference all this reading has made to me. The books I read and the intellectual and emotional business of reading them has given me a bottomless bag of tools (think Hermione’s charmed handbag) to use as I build my life and navigate the world. These are also the tools I use when I write. Here are three lessons I learned from mentor texts.


Column by Virginia Zimmerman, debut author of THE ROSEMARY
(Dec. 2015, Clarion Books). Kirkus calls the book “spellbinding,”

and ALA Booklist describes it as a “wonderful blend of literary puzzles,
adventure, and musings over memory and identity.” In a starred review,
Publishers Weekly calls the novel “enthralling” and “deftly plotted.” Virginia 
is now a Professor of English at Bucknell University in Lewisburg, PA, where
she gets to read and write and talk about books for a living. She especially
enjoys Victorian literature and children’s fiction. Follow her on Twitter

1. “Write what you know.”

Like many readers, I learned this familiar lesson from LITTLE WOMEN. Prof. Bhaer doesn’t utter the exact phrase “write what you know,” but the sentiment is clear as he advises Jo to draw from familiar subjects as she writes fiction. But it means much more than giving your main character three sisters because you have three sisters. It also means building worlds out of tiny, seemingly insignificant bits of reality: remarks, images, and events.

(Have questions about what genre/category you're writing in? Here are some tips.)

In THE ROSEMARY SPELLwhen the main characters go to their school library, I had in mind the library at Kilmer Middle School in Vienna, VA. I have only visited this school once, and I spent only a short time in the library, but the layout of the space, the light on the tables, it was what I needed, so I pulled it out of my memory bank and put it in the fictional school my characters attend.

Authors collect these bits of reality and store them away in their bottomless tool bags until they discover that one of those bits is just what a character or a scene or a story needs. I keep a journal and jot down snippets of conversation and interesting images. Sometimes years pass before I deploy these bits of what I know, but when I do, they make even the most fantastical plots real.

2. Constellations of Characters

I love and admire many things about Madeleine L’Engle’s books, but what might impress me most is the way she creates a constellation of characters. She invents a world inhabited by an array of people, and her novels rise up out of this world, with characters that meander from one book or series into others. Stars in one book become part of the galaxy of characters in another. Meg and Calvin, for instance, grow up and become characters busy in the background of books that feature new young people.

Image placeholder title

Don't let your submission be rejected for
improper formatting. The third edition of 
Formatting & Submitting Your Manuscript
has more than 100 examples of queries,
synopses, proposals, book text, and more.
Buy it online here at a discount.

I have adapted L’Engle’s pattern—I drop characters from one book into the background of other books, and I also draw heavily on the books my characters read. In THE ROSEMARY SPELL, the characters are very fond of a fictional book called PELAGIA'S BOATS, a book I am now in the process of writing. Inspired by L’Engle’s constellations of characters, I am crafting a constellation of intersecting texts. These books and people that transcend the bounds of any one story bolster the realism of the world I create.

3. Metaphor and Simile and Personification, Oh My!

My profession exposes me to literary devices by the bucketful. Yet, it was Marcus Lusaka’s THE BOOK THIEF that revealed to me, as a writer, how simile, metaphor, and personification can be powerful tools for realism. So many phrases in THE BOOK THIEF take my breath away, and in my awe, I learned a new way to give shape to complicated feelings. Zusak describes a man’s eyes as made of “kindness and silver” (34); realization is a “jigsaw puzzle” (5). In THE ROSEMARY SPELL, an awkward feeling “tries to shuffle out of the way” (4), books “lurk” (1), and grief “tugs” at a person’s face (136). Careful readers will notice I use a lot of personification, a device whose power I didn’t really see until I read THE BOOK THIEF.

(Literary agents examine and define complicated book genres & definitions.)

My life, like my character Rosemary’s, is full of mentor texts. Some help me when I’m afraid. Some inspire me to weather challenges. Some are the cardinal directions on my moral compass. All of them teach me how to write, and I keep them close at hand. My desk sits next to a physical manifestation of that bottomless bag of tools—a six-foot shelf filled with books that have taught me one thing or another. From this constellation of books, I’ve learned about simile and metaphor and personification. I’ve learned to write what I know, and I know what and how to write because of what I’ve read.


Check Out These Great Upcoming Writers' Conferences:

Screen Shot 2014-12-17 at 3.39.23 PM

Your new complete and updated instructional guide
to finding an agent is finally here: The 2015 book
GET A LITERARY AGENT shares advice from more 
than 110 literary agents who share advice on querying, 
craft, the submission process, researching agents, and
much more. Filled with all the advice you'll ever need to
find an agent, this resource makes a great partner book to
the agent database, Guide to Literary Agents.

Other writing/publishing articles & links for you:

Marissa Levien: On Pinning Down Your Novel's Middle

Marissa Levien: On Pinning Down Your Novel's Middle

Debut author Marissa Levien discusses how she always knew what the beginning and the end of her science fiction novel The World Gives Way would be, but that the middle remained elusive.

Drawing the Line for Withholding Secrets in Young Adult and Middle-Grade Novels

Drawing the Line for Withholding Secrets in Young Adult and Middle Grade Novels

Middle-grade and young adult author Ren Koppel Torres shares the top tips for how you can keep secrets from your characters and readers.

Payal Doshi: On Letting Rejection Bring You Clarity

Payal Doshi: On Letting Rejection Bring You Clarity

Middle-grade author Payal Doshi discusses the sometimes-disheartening process of querying a novel and how she used rejection to fuel her passion for writing.

writer's digest wd presents

WD Presents: Writer’s Digest Conference Announcements and More!

This week, we’re excited to announce that our 2021 Annual Conference will be virtual, registration is open for our 2021 in-person Novel Conference, and more!

Rajani LaRocca: On Letting Your Synopsis Guide Your Writing

Rajani LaRocca: On Letting Your Synopsis Guide Your Writing

In this article, middle-grade author Rajani LaRocca discusses how the synopsis for her newest release, Much Ado About Baseball, guided her writing process.

From Script

Adding Your Personal Connection to Your Stories and Building Your Brand As a Writer (From Script)

In this week’s round up brought to us by ScriptMag.com, Script’s Editor Sadie Dean interviews Dickinson creator/showrunner/EP Alena Smith, learn how to divide and conquer as screenwriter in the business and creating fruitful relationships. Plus, a brand new Script Talk video interview with writer/director/actress Djaka Souaré about her journey as a mentor and mentee in the WOCUnite and #StartWith8Hollywood mentorship programs.

Poetic Forms

Englyn Penfyr: Poetic Forms

Poetic Form Fridays are made to share various poetic forms. This week, we look at the englyn penfyr, a Welsh tercet form.

Editorial Road-Mapping: Start Your Self-Editing Process Here

Editorial Road-Mapping: Start Your Self-Editing Process Here

Editorial road-mapping begins with a challenge of willpower and ends with a battle-plan for transforming your manuscript into the book you dreamed it could be. Let editor Kris Spisak give you that map!

6 Tips for Writing a Summer Romance Novel

6 Tips for Writing a Summer Romance Novel

Summer. Three whole months of bright sunsets and glittering water and endless possibility. Here are 6 tips from romance writer Rachael Lippincott for capturing a tiny bit of that magic in the pages of your next summer romance novel.