7 Ways to Create a Killer Opening Line For Your Novel

Writing the first line to your book is an incredibly daunting task. This is your first opportunity to hook readers in. I remember writing and rewriting the opening line to my humor book OH BOY, YOU’RE HAVING A GIRL over and over again until I finally felt like I nailed it with this:

“If you’re a guy and you’ve opened this book, you either have a daughter, are on the verge of having a daughter, or are in the delivery room hoping that that sweet bundle of joy that just emerged from your wife somehow, someway, spontaneously grow a penis. I am here to tell you: That almost never happens.”

If you’re having trouble nailing your opening, you’re in luck: writer and WD contributor Jacob M. Appel offers up seven different approaches to writing a killer opening line (he includes examples from classic novels to accompany each, too). Here they are and they are worth bookmarking and referencing each time you begin a story.

1. A statement of eternal principle.

This technique is a staple of European classics. Think of Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice (“It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife.”) and Leo Tolstoy’s Anna Karenina (“Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.”). Of course, the story or novel you write must confirm the proposed principle. If it turned out that Mr. Darcy didn’t want to wed, or that Anna was happily married, these openings would certainly leave readers wanting. (An excellent contemporary example is from Jane Hamilton’s The Book of Ruth: “What it begins with, I know finally, is the kernel of meanness in people’s hearts. …”)

2. A statement of simple fact.

The entire weight of the narrative can sometimes be conveyed in a single statement. Think of, “I had a farm in Africa” (Isak Dinesen’s Out of Africa) or, “It was a pleasure to burn” (Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451) or, “I am an invisible man” (Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man). No gimmicks. No fireworks. Just—as Mr. Gradgrind demands in the opening line of Charles Dickens’ Hard Times—the facts.

3. A statement of paired facts.

In many cases, two facts combined are more powerful than either one on its own. The paradigmatic example is the opening line of Carson McCullers’ The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter: “In the town there were two mutes, and they were always together.” A town with two mutes is not necessarily compelling, nor are two inseparable men. But a town with two inseparable mutes? Now that locks in our interest.

4. A statement of simple fact laced with significance.

Because readers don’t read backward, it’s possible to bury a key piece of a story in an opening so that, by the time it becomes relevant, the reader has forgotten it. Agatha Christie mysteries do this often. The key to solving the crime in Murder on the Orient Express, for example, is embedded innocuously in the opening sentence. So is the key to the heroine’s psyche in Margaret Mitchell’s Gone With the Wind, the opening of which explains, “Scarlett O’Hara was not beautiful. …”

5. A statement to introduce voice.

“Lolita, light of my life, fire of my loins.” Vladimir Nabokov’s celebrated opening is not designed to convey characterization or plot, though both are present, so much as to introduce his distinctive style. Anthony Burgess opens A Clockwork Orange (“What’s it going to be then, eh?”) without any plot, characterization or setting at all—merely the ominous voice that will accompany the reader through the text. Stories that begin with a highly unusual voice often withhold other craft elements for a few sentences—a reasonable choice, as the reader may need to adjust to a new form of language before being able to absorb much in the way of content.

6. A statement to establish mood.

Contextual information not directly related to the story can often color our understanding of the coming narrative. Take Sylvia Plath’s opening to The Bell Jar: “It was a queer, sultry summer, the summer they electrocuted the Rosenbergs, and I didn’t know what I was doing in New York.” While the Rosenberg execution has nothing to do with the content of the narrative, it sets an ominous tone for what follows.

7. A statement that serves as a frame.

Sometimes, the best way to begin a story is to announce that you’re about to tell a story. English storytellers have been doing this since at least the first recorded use of the phrase “Once upon a time” in the 14th century. Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn starts off this way, as does J.D. Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye. After all, a brilliant opening can be as straightforward as: “You are about to begin reading Italo Calvino’s new novel, If on a Winter’s Night a Traveler …” (which really does start exactly that way).

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Brian A. Klems is the online editor of Writer’s Digest and author of the popular gift book Oh Boy, You’re Having a Girl: A Dad’s Survival Guide to Raising Daughters.

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11 thoughts on “7 Ways to Create a Killer Opening Line For Your Novel

  1. AvatarKGPetrone

    I actually took your advice and the difference in my opening line was amazing.
    It went from: “Jennifer Hart was jolted awake by the phone screaming at 3:00 a.m. in the morning.” and was dramatically changed to:
    ” She tossed and turned, again having the, “Who am I and who are my biological parents’ dream,” when the phone’s reverberating ring ripped Jennifer Hart from her dreams.”

    So honestly, which opening line would grab you to examine the book further?

  2. AvatarLilius

    Awfully insightful, the examples give a great idea of what each line means. I give you my thanks for helping the following line come to life.
    ‘Like most days he would wonder when he started to feel Death in his bones.’

  3. Avatardudeguy101

    Jesus H tap-dancing Christ! I mean… SERIOUSLY?! If you physically cannot structure your own story, you are not fit to write a bloody stlry or anything like that! In fact, I’m only on this stupid website so I can comment on things like this and get you all to REALIZE that I’m actually right! Does anybody understand?! If you do, respond… quickly, please! I’m beggin’ on my knees for somebody to just… understand and agree with me – because I’M SODDING RIGHT! >:(

    1. AvatarJporter61

      Sorry, but I can’t agree that you’re right. I had a writing professor at a major university that had no idea what novel writing structure is, but he wrote at least three bestselling novels in his life.

      And, by the way, what is a stiry?

  4. Avatarlandsmann

    Ditto to the first two responders. Can’t wait to hear how “It was five o’clock on a winter’s morning in Syria” will solve this particular murder mystery.

  5. Avatarmatthewsmaynard

    “The last hour of life for Adam and Anne Philipson began at 3:04 in the afternoon on a Thursday in mid-December.” – an example of #2 from my first self-published novel, The Dragonslayers, Volume 1: The Righteous and the Lawless. It started out as a very boring sentence, describing main character walking down the street and only morphed into what it is now when my wife told me it was boring as hell. I decided to show his motivation instead of just telling it piecemeal throughout the book and it seems to work beautifully.

  6. AvatarBarbie

    New to this form of expression (which follows my first preference: screaming, I’m writing a memoir which is many, too many, pronged. Nevertheless, I needed to begin somewhere, so I began with something close to the beginning: a three year old girl taken on a bus by her mother, to live in an orphanage, that reality not known to her. (some surprise, no?) Lots of orphans in the era of WWII had mothers. Dads? Whole ‘nother story. My opening line:
    “Where we goin’, Mama?” “You’ll see,” she replies.

  7. AvatarLyndseyDavis

    I LOVE this. As a newish-writer, I wish I had read it months ago. My first line required 15 rewrites, before I ‘chanced’ or more accurately, honed it and wrote a first sentence in the #4 category.
    I’m meeting with my writer’s group this weekend, and I am definitely passing this along to them.
    Thanks for sharing.

  8. AvatarChautona

    Great article. I loved the breakdown. I am dying to know, however, how you get the key to solving Murder on the Orient Express in the opening line. I was so excited to go check it and I feel like a dunce. I would really appreciate you sharing with us on that one!



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